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Developmental Times and Life Tables for Shore Flies, Scatella tenuicosta (Diptera: Ephydridae), at Three Temperatures
- Ugine, T.A., Sanderson, J.P., Wraight, S.P.
- Environmental entomology 2007 v.36 no.5 pp. 989
- Ephydridae, insect development, developmental stages, duration, longevity, mortality, insect reproduction, oviposition, fecundity, temperature, heat sums, life tables, insect rearing
- Development times and survivorship of immature shore flies and longevity and reproduction of adult shore flies, Scatella tenuicosta Collin, reared on algae-infested filter paper, were studied at three temperatures (constant 20, 26, and 28.5°C) through life table analysis. The development time for each individual life stage and the total time from egg to adult decreased with increasing temperature. Duration of the third (ultimate) larval instar ranged from 3.3 ± 0.09 d at 20°C to 1.4 ± 0.04 d at 28.5°C and was 1.7-1.9 times longer than the approximately equal first and second instars. Development of male and female shore flies from egg to adult needed an average of 14.5 ± 0.13, 8.2 ± 0.05, and 7.0 ± 0.04 d at 20, 26, and 28.5°C, respectively, and needed an estimated 154.4 ± 1.2 thermal units (degree days). At these respective temperatures, adult females lived 21.8 ± 2.2, 19.9 ± 2.4, and 15.0 ± 1.4 d and produced 379 ± 62, 710 ± 119, and 477 ± 83 eggs during oviposition periods of 14.3 ± 2.1, 15.0 ± 2.2, and 10.8 ± 1.4 d; daily lifetime egg production averaged 16.3 ± 2.3, 33.5 ± 3.8, and 29.7 ± 3.5. Developmental stage-specific mortality was relatively low for all life stages at all temperatures, with maximum percent mortalities of 5.7% occurring in both the egg stage and in the third instar. The highest net reproductive rate (Ro) was obtained for insects reared at 26°C and was 329.6. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was highest at 28.5°C and was 0.430. Generation time and doubling time of the population were shortest at 28.5°C and were 12.4 and 1.6 d, respectively. Results suggested that 26°C was near optimum for reproduction.