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Matched Case—Control Data Analysis with Selection Bias

Lin, I‐Feng, Paik, Myunghee Cho
Biometrics 2001 v.57 no.4 pp. 1106-1112
biometry, case-control studies, computer software, equations, probability, stroke, surveys
Case‐control studies offer a rapid and efficient way to evaluate hypotheses. On the other hand, proper selection of the controls is challenging, and the potential for selection bias is a major weakness. Valid inferences about parameters of interest cannot be drawn if selection bias exists. Furthermore, the selection bias is difficult to evaluate. Even in situations where selection bias can be estimated, few methods are available. In the matched case‐control Northern Manhattan Stroke Study (NOMASS), stroke‐free controls are sampled in two stages. First, a telephone survey ascertains demographic and exposure status from a large random sample. Then, in an in‐person interview, detailed information is collected for the selected controls to be used in a matched case–control study. The telephone survey data provides information about the selection probability and the potential selection bias. In this article, we propose bias‐corrected estimators in a case‐control study using a joint estimating equation approach. The proposed bias‐corrected estimate and its standard error can be easily obtained by standard statistical software.