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Frontier orbital study on the 4‐hydroxybenzoate‐3‐hydroxylase‐dependent activity with benzoate derivatives

VERVOORT, Jacques, RIETJENS, Ivonne M. C. M., BERKEL, Willem J. H., VEEGER, Cees
European journal of biochemistry 1992 v.206 no.2 pp. 479-484
active sites, catalytic activity, hydroxyl radicals, mutants, pH, phenol
Based on molecular orbital computer calculations the present paper provides a new hypothesis for catalytic characteristics of 4‐hydroxybenzoate‐3‐hydroxylase (EC A clear correlation between In kcat for the conversion of a series of 4‐hydroxylated substrates and their E(HOMO) leads to the hypothesis that Frontier orbital HOMO characteristics [E(HOMO) and HOMO density on C3] of the substrates are the predominant factor in regulating the fate of a benzoate derivative at the active site of the enzyme. The HOMO characteristics can be used to explain whether a compound will be converted by the enzyme or merely acts as an effector. Furthermore the hypothesis provides quantitative theoretical support for a catalytic mechanism in which the substrate reacts in its dianionic form and for a mechanism in which the electrophilic attack of the C(4a)‐peroxyflavin, or of the hydroxyl radical derived from it, on the benzoate dianion is the rate limiting step in catalysis at pH 8, 25°C. Finally, it is demonstrated that the hypothesis can be used as a basis for the formulation of working hypotheses in future research, investigating the conversion and regioselective orientation of the various possible substrates in the active site of the wild‐type 4‐hydroxybenzoate‐3‐hydroxylase, its mutants as well as of various other flavin‐dependent aromatic hydroxylases, such as for example 3‐hydroxybenzoate‐4‐hydroxylase (EC, 3‐hydroxybenzoate‐6‐hydroxylase (EC and phenol hydroxylase (EC