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LSm14A is a processing body-associated sensor of viral nucleic acids that initiates cellular antiviral response in the early phase of viral infection

Li, Ying, Chen, Rui, Zhou, Qian, Xu, Zhisheng, Li, Chao, Wang, Shuai, Mao, Aiping, Zhang, Xiaodong, He, Weiwu, Shu, Hong-Bing
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2012 v.109 no.29 pp. 11770-11775
DNA, DNA viruses, RNA, immune response, interferon-beta, peroxisomes, receptors
Recognition of viral nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors initiates type I IFN induction and innate antiviral immune response. Here we show that LSm14A, a member of the LSm family involved in RNA processing in the processing bodies, binds to synthetic or viral RNA and DNA and mediates IRF3 activation and IFN-β induction. Knockdown of LSm14A inhibits cytosolic RNA- and DNA-trigger type I IFN production and cellular antiviral response. Moreover, LSm14A is essential for early-phase induction of IFN-β after either RNA or DNA virus infection. We further found that LSm14A-mediated IFN-β induction requires RIG-I–VISA or MITA after RNA or DNA virus infection, respectively, and viral infection causes translocation of LSm14A to peroxisomes, where RIG-I, VISA, and MITA are located. These findings suggest that LSm14A is a sensor for both viral RNA and DNA and plays an important role in initiating IFN-β induction in the early phase of viral infection.