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Nonviral delivery of self-amplifying RNA vaccines

Geall, Andrew J., Verma, Ayush, Otten, Gillis R., Shaw, Christine A., Hekele, Armin, Banerjee, Kaustuv, Cu, Yen, Beard, Clayton W., Brito, Luis A., Krucker, Thomas, O’Hagan, Derek T., Singh, Manmohan, Mason, Peter W., Valiante, Nicholas M., Dormitzer, Philip R., Barnett, Susan W., Rappuoli, Rino, Ulmer, Jeffrey B., Mandl, Christian W.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2012 v.109 no.36 pp. 14604-14609
humans, immune response, lipids, nanoparticles, recombinant vaccines, research and development, small interfering RNA
Despite more than two decades of research and development on nucleic acid vaccines, there is still no commercial product for human use. Taking advantage of the recent innovations in systemic delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) using lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), we developed a self-amplifying RNA vaccine. Here we show that nonviral delivery of a 9-kb self-amplifying RNA encapsulated within an LNP substantially increased immunogenicity compared with delivery of unformulated RNA. This unique vaccine technology was found to elicit broad, potent, and protective immune responses, that were comparable to a viral delivery technology, but without the inherent limitations of viral vectors. Given the many positive attributes of nucleic acid vaccines, our results suggest that a comprehensive evaluation of nonviral technologies to deliver self-amplifying RNA vaccines is warranted.