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Adjuvant solution for pandemic influenza vaccine production

Clegg, Christopher H., Roque, Richard, Van Hoeven, Neal, Perrone, Lucy, Baldwin, Susan L., Rininger, Joseph A., Bowen, Richard A., Reed, Steven G.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2012 v.109 no.43 pp. 17585-17590
CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, Influenza A virus, Toll-like receptor 4, adjuvants, agonists, antibodies, avian influenza, birds, durability, emulsions, ferrets, hemagglutinins, immune response, lipids, mice, oils, pandemic, signal transduction, vaccines, viruses
Extensive preparation is underway to mitigate the next pandemic influenza outbreak. New vaccine technologies intended to supplant egg-based production methods are being developed, with recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) as the most advanced program for preventing seasonal and avian H5N1 Influenza. Increased efforts are being focused on adjuvants that can broaden vaccine immunogenicity against emerging viruses and maximize vaccine supply on a worldwide scale. Here, we test protection against avian flu by using H5N1-derived rHA and GLA-SE, a two-part adjuvant system containing glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA), a formulated synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, and a stable emulsion (SE) of oil in water, which is similar to the best-in-class adjuvants being developed for pandemic flu. Notably, a single submicrogram dose of rH5 adjuvanted with GLA-SE protects mice and ferrets against a high titer challenge with H5N1 virus. GLA-SE, relative to emulsion alone, accelerated induction of the primary immune response and broadened its durability against heterosubtypic H5N1 virus challenge. Mechanistically, GLA-SE augments protection via induction of a Th1-mediated antibody response. Innate signaling pathways that amplify priming of Th1 CD4 T cells will likely improve vaccine performance against future outbreaks of lethal pandemic flu.