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Central role of liver in anticancer and radioprotective activities of Toll-like receptor 5 agonist

Burdelya, Lyudmila G., Brackett, Craig M., Kojouharov, Bojidar, Gitlin, Ilya I., Leonova, Katerina I., Gleiberman, Anatoli S., Aygun-Sunar, Semra, Veith, Jean, Johnson, Christopher, Haderski, Gary J., Stanhope-Baker, Patricia, Allamaneni, Shyam, Skitzki, Joseph, Zeng, Ming, Martsen, Elena, Medvedev, Alexander, Scheblyakov, Dmitry, Artemicheva, Nataliya M., Logunov, Denis Y., Gintsburg, Alexander L., Naroditsky, Boris S., Makarov, Sergei S., Gudkov, Andrei V.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2013 v.110 no.20 pp. E1857
Toll-like receptor 4, Toll-like receptor 5, agonists, apoptosis, bacteria, blood circulation, flagellin, gastrointestinal system, growth retardation, hepatocytes, hepatotoxicity, induced resistance, innate immunity, liver, metastasis, mice, neoplasms, radioprotective agents, tissues, transcription factor NF-kappa B
Vertebrate Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes bacterial flagellin proteins and activates innate immune responses to motile bacteria. In addition, activation of TLR5 signaling can inhibit growth of TLR5-expressing tumors and protect normal tissues from radiation and ischemia-reperfusion injuries. To understand the mechanisms behind these phenomena at the organismal level, we assessed nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation (indicative of TLR5 signaling) in tissues and cells of mice treated with CBLB502, a pharmacologically optimized flagellin derivative. This identified the liver and gastrointestinal tract as primary CBLB502 target organs. In particular, liver hepatocytes were the main cell type directly and specifically responding to systemic administration of CBLB502 but not to that of the TLR4 agonist LPS. To assess CBLB502 impact on other pathways, we created multireporter mice with hepatocytes transduced in vivo with reporters for 46 inducible transcription factor families and found that along with NF-κB, CBLB502 strongly activated STAT3-, phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PREM), and activator protein 1 (AP-1–) -driven pathways. Livers of CBLB502-treated mice displayed induction of numerous immunomodulatory factors and massive recruitment of various types of immune cells. This led to inhibition of growth of liver metastases of multiple tumors regardless of their TLR5 status. The changed liver microenvironment was not, however, hepatotoxic, because CBLB502 induced resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis in normal liver cells. Temporary occlusion of liver blood circulation prevented CBLB502 from protecting hematopoietic progenitors in lethally irradiated mice, indicating involvement of a factor secreted by responding liver cells. These results define the liver as the key mediator of TLR5-dependent effects in vivo and suggest clinical applications for TLR5 agonists as hepatoprotective and antimetastatic agents.