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Decorin causes autophagy in endothelial cells via Peg3

Buraschi, Simone, Neill, Thomas, Goyal, Atul, Poluzzi, Chiara, Smythies, James, Owens, Rick T., Schaefer, Liliana, Torres, Annabel, Iozzo, Renato V.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2013 v.110 no.28 pp. E2582
angiogenesis, autophagy, endothelial cells, gene expression, membrane potential, mitochondrial membrane, proteoglycans, tumor suppressor genes, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, vascular endothelial growth factors
Soluble decorin affects the biology of several receptor tyrosine kinases by triggering receptor internalization and degradation. We found that decorin induced paternally expressed gene 3 (Peg3), an imprinted tumor suppressor gene, and that Peg3 relocated into autophagosomes labeled by Beclin 1 and microtubule-associated light chain 3. Decorin evoked Peg3-dependent autophagy in both microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells leading to suppression of angiogenesis. Peg3 coimmunoprecipitated with Beclin 1 and LC3 and was required for maintaining basal levels of Beclin 1. Decorin, via Peg3, induced transcription of Beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha genes, thereby leading to a protracted autophagic program. Mechanistically, decorin interacted with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in a region overlapping with its natural ligand VEGFA, and VEGFR2 was required for decorin-evoked Beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha expression as well as for Peg3 induction in endothelial cells. Moreover, decorin induced VEGFR2-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Thus, we have unveiled a mechanism for a secreted proteoglycan in inducing Peg3, a master regulator of macroautophagy in endothelial cells.