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Entrapment of Palm-Based Medium- and Long-Chain Triacylglycerol via Maillard Reaction Products
- Lee, Yee-Ying, Tang, Teck-Kim, Tan, Chin-Ping, Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed, Phuah, Eng-Tong, Karim, Nur Azwani Ab, Lai, Oi-Ming
- Food and bioprocess technology 2015 v.8 no.7 pp. 1571-1582
- Maillard reaction products, amino acids, antioxidant activity, emulsifiers, emulsifying properties, emulsions, encapsulation, glycation, heat treatment, lipid content, long chain triacylglycerols, maltodextrins, oils, scanning electron microscopy, sodium caseinate, solubility, soy protein, spray drying, temperature
- Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are believed to possess antioxidant property besides producing emulsion which is stable and smaller in size. In our work, utilization of MRP as encapsulating agent for structured lipid palm-based medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) was investigated. The MRP prepared from heated aqueous mixture of sodium caseinate (SC), soy protein (SP) and maltodextrin (M) was emulsified with MLCT prior spray drying. The effect of temperature (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 °C), incubation time (2, 6, 8 h), mixture of SC: SP: M (1:0:1, 2:1:3, 1:1:2, 1:2:3, 0:1:1) and carbohydrate + protein:water ratio (1:5 and 1:8) on glycation was investigated. Degree of glycation (Dg) was determined via amount of block amino acid and L*a*b* value. As expected, increasing heat treatment (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 °C) and incubation time (2, 6 and 8 h) significantly (P < 0.05) increase the Dg. Dg was also higher (P < 0.05) at high water to solid content. Subsequently, the influence of Dg on physical properties of emulsion and spray-dried powder was also evaluated. It was found that glycation has the ability to reduce the emulsion size besides lowering moisture and surface oil content and creating larger microparticle size of the spray-dried powder. Nonetheless, whitening ability and solubility of the powder are slightly reduced especially when 100 °C MRP was used for encapsulation. SEM showed that glycation resulted in particle with smoother surface. MRP can be utilized as natural emulsifier besides improving certain functional properties of spray-dried powder oil.