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Developmental propagation of V(D)J recombination-associated DNA breaks and translocations in mature B cells via dicentric chromosomes

Hu, Jiazhi, Tepsuporn, Suprawee, Meyers, Robin M., Gostissa, Monica, Alt, Frederick W.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2014 v.111 no.28 pp. 10269-10274
B-lymphocytes, DNA damage, ataxia (disorder), chromosome translocation, chromosomes, cytidine deaminase, immunoglobulin M, lymphoma, mice, mutants
Mature IgM ⁺ B-cell lymphomas that arise in certain ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-deficient compound mutant mice harbor translocations that fuse V(D)J recombination-initiated IgH double-strand breaks (DSBs) on chromosome 12 to sequences downstream of c-myc on chromosome 15, generating dicentric chromosomes and c-myc amplification via a breakage-fusion-bridge mechanism. As V(D)J recombination DSBs occur in developing progenitor B cells in the bone marrow, we sought to elucidate a mechanism by which such DSBs contribute to oncogenic translocations/amplifications in mature B cells. For this purpose, we applied high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing to study the fate of introduced c-myc DSBs in splenic IgM ⁺ B cells stimulated for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependen t IgH class switch recombination (CSR). We found frequent translocations of c-myc DSBs to AID-initiated DSBs in IgH switch regions in wild-type and ATM-deficient B cells. However, c-myc also translocated frequently to newly generated DSBs within a 35-Mb region downstream of IgH in ATM-deficient, but not wild-type, CSR-activated B cells. Moreover, we found such DSBs and translocations in activated B cells that did not express AID or undergo CSR. Our findings indicate that ATM deficiency leads to formation of chromosome 12 dicentrics via recombination-activating gene-initiated IgH DSBs in progenitor B cells and that these dicentrics can be propagated developmentally into mature B cells where they generate new DSBs downstream of IgH via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. We propose that dicentrics formed by joining V(D)J recombination–associated IgH DSBs to DSBs downstream of c-myc in ATM-deficient B lineage cells similarly contribute to c-myc amplification and mature B-cell lymphomas.