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Meal frequency and timing in health and disease

Mattson, Mark P., Allison, David B., Fontana, Luigi, Harvie, Michelle, Longo, Valter D., Malaisse, Willy J., Mosley, Michael, Notterpek, Lucia, Ravussin, Eric, Scheer, Frank A. J. L., Seyfried, Thomas N., Varady, Krista A., Panda, Satchidananda
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2014 v.111 no.47 pp. 16647-16653
animal models, diet, eating habits, energy intake, foods, health services, humans, issues and policy, lifestyle, lipid metabolism, stress response
Although major research efforts have focused on how specific components of foodstuffs affect health, relatively little is known about a more fundamental aspect of diet, the frequency and circadian timing of meals, and potential benefits of intermittent periods with no or very low energy intakes. The most common eating pattern in modern societies, three meals plus snacks every day, is abnormal from an evolutionary perspective. Emerging findings from studies of animal models and human subjects suggest that intermittent energy restriction periods of as little as 16 h can improve health indicators and counteract disease processes. The mechanisms involve a metabolic shift to fat metabolism and ketone production, and stimulation of adaptive cellular stress responses that prevent and repair molecular damage. As data on the optimal frequency and timing of meals crystalizes, it will be critical to develop strategies to incorporate those eating patterns into health care policy and practice, and the lifestyles of the population.