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Protective Role of Moringa oleifera (Sajina) Seed on Arsenic-Induced Hepatocellular Degeneration in Female Albino Rats

Chattopadhyay, Sandip, Maiti, Smarajit, Maji, Gurupada, Deb, Bimal, Pan, Bappaditya, Ghosh, Debidas
Biological trace element research 2011 v.142 no.2 pp. 200-212
DNA fragmentation, Moringa oleifera, alanine transaminase, albino, antioxidant activity, arsenic, aspartate transaminase, body weight, catalase, cholesterol, drinking water, high density lipoprotein, lipid peroxidation, liver, liver function, low density lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, oxidative stress, phytotherapy, rats, reactive oxygen species, sodium arsenite, subchronic exposure, superoxide dismutase, toxicity, triacylglycerols
In an attempt to develop new herbal therapy, an aqueous extract of the seed of Moringa oleifera was used to screen the effect on arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in female rat of Wistar strain. Subchronic exposure to sodium arsenite (0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/day via drinking water for a period of 24 days) significantly increased activities of hepatic and lipid function markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL along with a decrease in total protein and HDL. A notable distortion of hepatocellular histoarchitecture was prominent with a concomitant increase in DNA fragmentation following arsenic exposure. A marked elevation of lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue was also evident from the hepatic accumulation of malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes along with suppressed activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, co-administration of aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera (500 mg/100 g body weight/day for a period of 24 days) was found to significantly prevent the arsenic-induced alteration of hepatic function markers and lipid profile. Moreover, the degeneration of histoarchitecture of liver found in arsenic-treated rats was protected along with partial but definite prevention against DNA fragmentation induction. Similarly, generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals were found to be significantly less along with restored activities of antioxidant enzymes in M. oleifera co-administered group with comparison to arsenic alone treatment group. The present investigation offers strong evidence for the hepato-protective and antioxidative efficiencies of M. oleifera seed extract against oxidative stress induced by arsenic.