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Effect of grape pomace on soil enzymatic activities and nutrients availability in Vitis vinifera 'Thompson seedless' orchard

Fincheira, P., Martinez, M., Ortega, R., Parada, M.
Acta horticulturae 2015 no.1076 pp. 151-156
NPK fertilizers, Vitis vinifera, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, composts, enzyme activity, grape pomace, inorganic phosphorus, microorganisms, models, nitrogen, nutrient availability, nutrients, nutrition, organic matter, phosphoric acid, phosphorus, soil, soil quality, Chile
Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson seedless’ is an important exportation product and it is cultivated on a large territory, reaching 23,926 ha in Chile, under traditional fertilization programs but in the last time the concept of Integral Nutrition Management, based on used of appropriate NPK fertilization, organic matter and microorganisms, has been applied to recover soil quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of compost and its combination with mineral fertilizer on nutrients availability and enzyme activities in soil of Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson seedless’ under controlled conditions. It was used vegetal material with one year old as a model in three treatments: (T1) compost+ mineral fertilizers, (T2) compost, (T3) mineral fertilizer and control. The base line of soil showed low organic matter (0.1%) and it was supplemented with an initial application of 2 kg of grape pomace compost and mineral fertilizer containing 20 g of (NH4)2SO4* (Novatek 21®), 150 ml of H3PO4 1% and 10 gr of KSO4 depending on the applied treatment. The evaluation of enzymatic activities (β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase activity) and nutrient availability (nitrogen and phosphorus inorganic availability) was performed 111 days after treatment application. The results indicated that phosphorus availability increased with application of both compost and mineral fertilizer and the nitrogen availability was strongly dependent on the application of mineral fertilizer. Moreover, dehydrogenase activity increases with compost application. No significant differences were obtained in β-glucosidase and acid/alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.05). These results prove that integrated fertilization increases the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as, a tendency to increase enzyme activities.