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Effects of early extra fluid and food intake on breast milk consumption and infant nutritional status at 5 months of age in an urban and a rural area of Burkina Faso

Thiombiano-Coulibaly, N., Rocquelin, G., Eymard-Duvernay, S., Zougmore, O.N., Traore, S.A.
European journal of clinical nutrition 2004 v.58 no.1 pp. 80-89
anthropometric measurements, breast feeding, breast milk, breasts, cross-sectional studies, fatty acid composition, foods, households, infants, lipids, midwives, milk consumption, mothers, nutritional status, rural areas, selection criteria, socioeconomic status, surveys, urban areas, Burkina Faso
Objective: To assess the effects of early extra fluid and food intake on breast milk consumption and the effects of food intake on 5-month-old infant nutritional status. Design: Cross-sectional surveys. Infants were selected by random choice. Settings: Urban and rural Burkina Faso. Subjects: A total of 97 urban and 69 rural infants were recruited, but 67 and 51, respectively, completed the surveys. Infant selection criteria were: age (5+/-0.5-month old), thriving, breastfed, having Burkinabe parents in study area for a year, study conditions accepted by parents. Intervention: Surveys were conducted respectively in January and February 2001 (urban), and 2002 (rural) during the cool season. They were performed by home visit. With the help of health workers and traditional midwives, families were informed of the studies' objectives and gave agreement. Food intakes were estimated by test-weighing for breast milk and precise weighing techniques for other foods. Socioeconomic status of households, anthropometry of infants and mothers were also recorded. Breast milk samples were collected from each mother's breast and analysed for lipid and fatty acid concentrations. Results: Daily breast milk intake did not differ between urban (776+/-262 g) and rural areas (835+/-265 g). Porridge intake was, respectively, 128+/-105 and 96+/-49 g. Median extra fluid intake was, respectively, 79 and 122 g. In both areas, porridge and fluid intake had no effect on breast milk consumption. In urban areas, infant nutritional status at 5 months was better than at birth. Conclusion: Breast milk intake and nutritional status of predominantly breastfed infants at 5 months of age, living in both urban and rural settings, were not affected by the consumption of extra fluid or food intake.