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Olfactory stimulation of Africanized honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) attacks by insect repellents
- Schmidt, J.O., Johnston, A.N., Ginter, D.L., Spangler, H.G.
- Journal of medical entomology 2003 v.40 no.3 pp. 275
- Apis mellifera, Africanized honey bees, insect behavior, honey bee colonies, colony defense, aggression, stinging, odors, insect repellents, deet, pyrethrins, piperonyl butoxide, propylene glycol, chemical ecology, Citronella
- Three common insect repellents (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET], Pyranha, and Repel X) were tested to determine whether they affected Africanized honey bee attack behavior. Eight Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were exposed in an alternating series to the test repellents or blank controls delivered in a stream of air directed toward the colony entrances. The response generated by the repellents and the controls was measured as the number of attacking honey bees recorded with an electronic temper tester. Neither a citronella-based repellent (Pyranha) nor DEET had any effect on colony behavior; however, Repel X consistently caused a greater attack response after exposure.