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The expression profile of TLR9 mRNA and CpG ODNs immunostimulatory actions in the teleost gilthead seabream points to a major role of lymphocytes

Cuesta, A., Esteban, M. A., Meseguer, J.
Cellular and molecular life sciences 2008 v.65 no.13 pp. 2091-2104
DNA, Sparus aurata, Toll-like receptor 9, aquaculture, cytotoxicity, fish, genes, humans, immune response, lymphocytes, messenger RNA, mice, oligodeoxyribonucleotides, reactive oxygen species, tissues
The potential effects of synthetic unmethylated oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing CpG motifs, mimicking bacterial DNA, has never been evaluated on the immune response in the teleost fish gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), the most important fish species in Mediterranean aquaculture. First, binding and competition studies have demonstrated that binding is saturated and promiscuous, suggesting the participation of several receptors. Moreover, leucocyte cytotoxic (NCC) activity, production of ROIs (reactive oxygen intermediates), and expression of immune-relevant genes was greatly primed by ODNs. Focusing on the mechanism, the TLR9 gene is widely distributed in seabream tissues and differently regulated in vitro by several stimuli. Moreover, and for the first time in fish, TLR9 mRNA has been detected in lymphocytes as the main cell-source. To conclude, ODNs containing GACGTT, GTCGTT (optimal for mouse and human, respectively) or AACGTT motifs are the most potent inducers of seabream immunity, whilst the involvement of TLR9 is under debate.