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Surface characterization of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane films on silicon-based substrates

Wong, April K. Y., Krull, Ulrich J.
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2005 v.383 no.2 pp. 187-200
DNA probes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, glass, mass spectrometry, models, oligonucleotides, scanning electron microscopy, silicon, single-stranded DNA, thermodynamics
Silane coupling agents are commonly used to activate surfaces for subsequent immobilization of biomolecules. The homogeneity and surface morphology of silane films is important for controlling the structural order of immobilized single-stranded DNA probes based on oligonucleotides. The surfaces of silicon wafers and glass slides with covalently attached 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOPS) have been characterized by using angularly dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and monochromatic and spectroscopic ellipsometry. XPS and ToF-SIMS data provided evidence of complete surface coverage by GOPS. Data from angularly resolved XPS and ellipsometry methods suggested that the GOPS films were of monolayer thickness. AFM and SEM data indicated the presence of films that consisted of nodules approximately 50-100 nm in diameter. Modeling suggested that the nodules may lead to a nanoscale structural morphology that might influence the hybridization kinetics and thermodynamics of immobilized oligonucleotides.