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Diversity in Tanzanian pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] landraces and their response to environments

Author:
Manyasa, E. O., Silim, S. N., Githiri, S. M., Christiansen, J. L.
Source:
Genetic resources and crop evolution 2008 v.55 no.3 pp. 379-387
ISSN:
0925-9864
Subject:
Cajanus cajan, agronomic traits, branches, cluster analysis, coasts, consumer acceptance, crossing, cultivars, farmers, flowering, genotype-environment interaction, germplasm, heritability, highlands, inflorescences, landraces, markets, new variety, pigeon peas, principal component analysis, selection response, Kenya, Tanzania
Abstract:
A total of 123 pigeonpea landraces collected from farmers' fields in four pigeonpea growing regions of Tanzania were characterized and evaluated for 16 qualitative and 14 quantitative descriptors, and their response across three pigeonpea growing environments in Tanzania and Kenya determined. Polymorphism in the qualitative traits was relatively low among accessions and across collection regions. Collections from the northern highlands exhibited lower diversity in qualitative descriptors, especially physical grain characters, relative to the other three regions, an indication of farmer selection in response to market preferences. There were significant differences in agronomic traits among accessions and in genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI). High broad-sense heritability was recorded for days to flower, days to maturity, plant height, raceme number and 100 seed mass. Principal component analysis and clustering separated variability among the accessions according to days to flower, days to maturity, plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, and number of racemes per plant. There was close clustering within and between materials from the coastal zone, eastern plains and southern plains with the northern accessions distinctly separated and with wide dispersion within them. Overall, two diversity clusters were evident with coastal, eastern and southern landraces in one diversity cluster and northern highlands landraces in another cluster. This diversity grouping established potential heterotic groups which may be used in crosses to generate new cultivars adapted to different pigeonpea growing environments with consumer acceptability. The grouping may also form a basis of forming a core collection of this germplasm representing the variability available.
Agid:
2100332