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Spatial characteristics of water quality, stable isotopes and tritium associated with groundwater flow in the Hutuo River alluvial fan plain of the North China Plain

Lu, Yintao, Tang, Changyuan, Chen, Jianyao, Song, Xianfang, Li, Fadong, Sakura, Yasuo
Hydrogeology journal 2008 v.16 no.5 pp. 1003-1015
aquifers, chemical composition, evaporation, groundwater, groundwater extraction, groundwater flow, irrigated farming, irrigation, models, oxygen, river water, rivers, stable isotopes, tritium, water quality, wells, China
The groundwater flow system and the flow velocity in the alluvial fan plain of the Hutuo River, China, have been studied, with an emphasis on relating geochemical characteristics and isotopes factors. Seven stretches of one river, six springs and 31 wells, with depths ranging from 0 m (river waters) to 150 m, were surveyed. The groundwater has a vertical two-layer structure with a boundary at about 80-100 m depth, yielding an upper and a lower groundwater layer. The δ¹⁸O and δD values range from -10.56 to -7.05[per thousand] and -81.83 to -59[per thousand], respectively. The groundwater has been recharged by precipitation, and has not been subjected to significant evaporation during infiltration into the aquifer in the upper layer. Using a tritium model, the groundwater flow in the alluvial fan plain showed horizontal flow velocity to be greater than vertical velocity. Groundwater in the upper layer is characterized by Ca-HCO₃ type. From the spatial distribution characteristics of the stable isotope and chemical composition of the groundwater, agricultural irrigation was considered to have an influence on the aquifer by causing excessive groundwater abstraction and irrigation return.