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Methacrylate-based monolithic column with mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/strong cation-exchange stationary phase for capillary liquid chromatography and pressure-assisted CEC

Lin, Jian, Huang, Guihua, Lin, Xucong, Xie, Zenghong
Electrophoresis 2008 v.29 no.19 pp. 4055-4065
cation exchange, electrophoresis, electrostatic interactions, ethylene glycol, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, hydrophilicity, ionic strength, plate count, polymerization, solutes, solvents
A novel porous polymethacrylate-based monolithic column by in situ copolymerization of 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate (SPMA) and pentaerythritol triacrylate in a binary porogenic solvent consisting of cyclohexanol/ethylene glycol was prepared. The monolith possessed in their structures bonded sulfonate groups and hydroxyl groups and was evaluated as a hydrophilic interaction and strong cation-exchange stationary phases in capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) and pressure-assisted CEC using small polar neutral and charged solutes. While the SPMA was introduced as multifunctional monomer, the pentaerythritol triacrylate was used to replace ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker with much more hydrophilicity due to a hydroxyl sub-layer. The different characterization of monolithic stationary phases were specially designed and easily prepared by altering the amount of SPMA in the polymerization solution as well as the composition of the porogenic solvent for cLC and pressure-assisted CEC. The resulting monolith showed the different trends about the effect of the permeabilities on efficiency in the pressure-assisted CEC and cLC modes. A typical hydrophilic interaction chromatography mechanism was observed at higher organic solvent content (ACN%>70%) for polar neutral analytes. For polar charged analytes, both hydrophilic interaction and electrostatic interaction contributed to their retention. Therefore, for charged analytes, selectivity can be readily manipulated by changing the composition of the mobile phase (e.g., pH, ionic strength and organic modifier). With the optimized monolithic column, high plate counts reaching greater than 170 000 plates/m for pressure-assisted CEC and 105 000 plates/m for cLC were easily obtained, respectively.