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Susceptibility of four field populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) to six insecticides in the Sydney region, New South Wales, Australia

Eziah, Vincent Y., Rose, Harley A., Clift, Alan D., Mansfield, Sarah
Australian journal of entomology 2008 v.47 no.4 pp. 355-360
Plutella xylostella, Yponomeutidae, at-risk population, chlorpyrifos, esfenvalerate, esterases, glutathione, indoxacarb, insecticide resistance, larvae, maleates, mechanism of action, methamidophos, new products, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, pyrethrins, spinosad, synergists, topical application, toxicity, New South Wales
Concerns about the failure of insecticides to control the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella in the Sydney region of New South Wales, Australia, necessitated the current investigation to establish the susceptibility of four field populations of the DBM to six insecticides. These include two each of organophosphates (OPs), and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides as well as two new products with different modes of action, spinosad and indoxacarb, currently recommended for DBM control in the region. Topical application of the insecticides to the third-instar larvae showed high resistance to pyrethroids (permethrin and esfenvalerate) of 35.0- to 490.0-fold. Resistance to the OPs (methamidophos and chlorpyrifos) and indoxacarb ranged from 12.1- to 36.2-fold and from 11.4- to 34.6-fold, respectively. However, the field populations were susceptible to spinosad (resistance factors only two- to threefold compared with the susceptible strain). A 2 h pre-treatment of the esfenvalerate-resistant strain with the synergists piperonyl butoxide and diethyl maleate increased the toxicity of esfenvalerate by 30.0- and 1.9-fold, respectively, suggesting the involvement of esterases and/or monooxygenases as the key mechanism(s) of insecticide resistance with glutathione S-transferases playing a minor role.