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Influence of soil organic matter decomposition on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in terms of asymbiotic hyphal growth and root colonization

Gryndler, Milan, Hršelová, Hana, Cajthaml, Tomáš, Havránková, Marie, Řezáčová, Veronika, Gryndlerová, Hana, Larsen, John
Mycorrhiza 2009 v.19 no.4 pp. 255-266
Claroideoglomus claroideum, Glomus intraradices, alfalfa, cellulose, corn, correlation, hyphae, mycelium, mycorrhizal fungi, nitrogen, organic matter, phenolic compounds, phosphorus, pyrolysis, root growth, roots, secondary metabolites, shoots, soil, soil organic matter, soil sampling, vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae, woody plants
Soil organic matter is known to influence arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but limited information is available on the chemical components in the organic matter causing these effects. We studied the influence of decomposing organic matter (pure cellulose and alfalfa shoot and root material) on AM fungi after 30, 100, and 300 days of decomposition in nonsterile soil with and without addition of mineral N and P. Decomposing organic matter affected maize root length colonized by the AM fungus Glomus claroideum in a similar manner as other plant growth parameters. Colonized root length was slightly increased by both nitrogen and phosphorus application and plant materials, but not by application of cellulose. In vitro hyphal growth of Glomus intraradices was increased by soil extracts from the treatments with all types of organic materials independently of mineral N and P application. Pyrolysis of soil samples from the different decomposition treatments revealed in total 266 recognizable organic compounds and in vitro hyphal growth of G. intraradices in soil extract positively correlated with 33 of these compounds. The strongest correlation was found with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid methyl ester. This compound is a typical product of pyrolysis of phenolic compounds produced by angiosperm woody plants, but in our experiment, it was produced mainly from cellulose by some components of the soil microflora. In conclusion, our results indicate that mycelia of AM fungi are influenced by organic matter decomposition both via compounds released during the decomposition process and also by secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms involved in organic matter decomposition.