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Field and laboratory evaluations of fungicides for the control of brown spot (Corynespora cassiicola) and black spot (Asperisporium caricae) of papaya in far north Queensland, Australia

Vawdrey, L.L., Grice, K.R.E., Westerhuis, D.
Australasian plant pathology 2008 v.37 no.6 pp. 552-558
Asperisporium caricae, Corynespora cassiicola, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, difenoconazole, field experimentation, industry, laboratory experimentation, mancozeb, metiram, phthalimide, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, triazoles, ziram, Queensland
Several chemicals including strobilurins (pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin), triazoles (difenoconazole and tebuconazole), dithiocarbamates (propineb, metiram, ziram and mancozeb) and the phthalimide chlorothalonil were evaluated in three field experiments in north Queensland, Australia, for the control of brown spot (caused by Corynespora cassiicola) and black spot (caused by Asperisporium caricae) of papaya. Chlorothalonil and pyraclostrobin were shown to be more effective than the industry standard, mancozeb, for the control of brown spot. In the black spot experiments, difenoconazole, pyraclostrobin and chlorothalonil used alone or in spray programs were as effective as, or better than, the industry standards, mancozeb and tebuconazole. Plants treated with pyraclostrobin and difenoconazole had more fruit unaffected by black spot (97% and 99% respectively) than plants treated with tebuconazole (51%), mancozeb (20%) and the untreated controls (1%). Laboratory tests also showed that A. caricae was more sensitive to difenoconazole (EC₅₀ of 2ppm) than tebuconazole (EC₅₀ of 14ppm). In 2007, off-label permits were obtained for chlorothalonil for control of brown spot and difenoconazole and chlorothalonil for the control of black spot of papaya.