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Alpha-ketoglutarate protects the liver of piglets exposed during prenatal life to chronic excess of dexamethasone from metabolic and structural changes

Śliwa, E., Dobrowolski, P., Tatara, M.R., Piersiak, T., Siwicki, A., Rokita, E., Pierzynowski, S.G.
Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition 2009 v.93 no.2 pp. 192-202
acute phase proteins, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, arginine, aspartic acid, biomarkers, blood serum, body weight, cholesterol, cystathionine, dexamethasone, essential amino acids, ferroxidase, free amino acids, glucocorticoids, gluconeogenesis, glutamic acid, glutamine, hepatoprotective effect, intracellular space, liver, lysozyme, metabolic diseases, methionine, neonates, parturition, piglets, pregnancy, protein synthesis, serine, sows, sulfur, triacylglycerols
Glucocorticoids play a role in the origin of the features of the metabolic diseases. Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is defined as glutamine homologue and derivative, conditionally an essential amino acid. In the liver, glutamine serves as a precursor for ureagenesis, gluconeogenesis and acute phase protein synthesis The aim of the study was to determine the effect of AKG administered to piglets prenatally exposed to dexamethasone, on the structure of the liver and its metabolic function. Sows were administered with dexamethasone (3 mg/sow/48 h) from day 70 of pregnancy to the parturition, and then after the birth, the piglets were divided into the group administered with AKG (0.4 g/kg body weight) or physiological saline. Biochemical markers, lysozyme and ceruloplasmin serum activities, concentrations of selected free amino acids, macro- and microelements and histomorphometry of the liver tissue were determined. The total cholesterol concentrations in the sows and their newborns from the Dex groups were higher by 72% and 64%, respectively, compared with the control groups. Triacylglycerol concentration was higher by 50% in sows from the Dex group and 55% in the new-born piglets. Alpha-ketoglutarate administered to the piglets after prenatal influence of dexamethasone lowered the total cholesterol concentration by 40%, and enhanced aspartate by 41%, serine by 76%, glutamate by 105%, glutamine by 36%, glycine by 53% and arginine by 105%, as well as methionine and cystathionine, but increased the sulphur concentration compared with the control (p < 0.01). Intracellular space D decreased after AKG administration in comparison with the piglets from Dex/Control group not treated with AKG. Postnatal administration of AKG had a protective effect on liver structure, and lowered the total cholesterol concentration in piglets prenatally exposed to dexamethasone, and also influenced selected macro- and microelement serum concentrations and amino acids plasma concentration.