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Biotransformation of tuna waste by co-fermentation into an aquafeed ingredient
- Vijayan, Hena, Joseph, Imelda, Raj, Rajaian Paul
- Aquaculture research 2009 v.40 no.9 pp. 1047-1053
- Bacillus licheniformis, Katsuwonus pelamis, Lactobacillus plantarum, aquaculture feeds, biotransformation, calcium, crude fiber, crude protein, cystine, fermentation, fins, gills, histidine, ingredients, methionine, microorganisms, nutritive value, phenylalanine, phosphorus, proximate composition, raw materials, red meat, serine, starter cultures, tuna, tyrosine, wastes, wheat flour
- Dried skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) waste (red meat, gills, viscera, fins, etc.) were mixed with 25% wheat flour and inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM) 2912 (10⁸-10⁹ cells mL⁻¹) and Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 6824 (10⁷-10⁸ cells mL⁻¹). Changes in the nutritional quality (crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fibre and nitrogen-free extract and aminoacids) were monitored during a fermentation period of 14 days. The proximate analysis showed significant changes in the composition of L. plantarum-fermented tuna (LPFT) and B. licheniformis-fermented tuna (BLFT) from the unfermented raw materials. Fermentation of tuna waste has resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in the protein content of tuna waste between days 6 and 12. All the amino acid contents in BLFT increased during fermentation, whereas, in LPFT the levels of serine, histidine, tyrosine, methionine, cystine and phenylalanine contents were decreased. A marginal increase in calcium and phosphorus levels was recorded in the fermented products. The results of the study suggest that LPFT or BLFT can be used as a novel aquafeed ingredient for different fish species.