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Optimal Dynamic Monitoring Network Design and Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources

Datta, Bithin, Chakrabarty, Dibakar, Dhar, Anirban
Water resources management 2009 v.23 no.10 pp. 2031-2049
groundwater, groundwater contamination, information exchange, models, monitoring, remediation, system optimization, wells
The identification of unknown pollution sources is a prerequisite for designing of a remediation strategy. In most of the real world situations, it is difficult to identify the pollution sources without a scientifically designed efficient monitoring network. The locations of the contaminant concentration measurement sites would determine the efficiency of the unknown source identification process to a large extent. Therefore coupled and iterative sequential source identification and dynamic monitoring network design framework is developed. The coupled approach provides a framework for necessary sequential exchange of information between monitoring network and source identification methodology. The preliminary identification of unknown sources, based on limited concentration data from existing arbitrarily located wells provides the initial rough estimate of the source fluxes. These identified source fluxes are then utilized for designing an optimal monitoring network for the first stage. Both the monitoring network and source identification process is repeated by sequential identification of sources and design of monitoring network which provides the feedback information. In the optimal source identification model, the Jacobian matrix which is the determinant for the search direction in the nonlinear optimization model links the groundwater flow-transport simulator and the optimization method. For the optimal monitoring network design, the integer programming based optimal design model requires as input, simulated sets of concentration data. In the proposed methodology, the concentration measurement data from the designed and implemented monitoring network are used as feedback information for sequential identification of unknown pollution sources. The potential applicability of the developed methodology is demonstrated for an illustrative study area.