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Optimal Land-Use Management for Surface Source Water Protection Under Uncertainty: A Case Study of Songhuaba Watershed (Southwestern China)

Liu, Yong, Yu, Yajuan, Guo, Huaicheng, Yang, Pingjian
Water resources management 2009 v.23 no.10 pp. 2069-2083
case studies, cities, economic development, forests, land use, linear programming, models, pollution, rivers, soil, surface water, uncertainty, water supply, watersheds, China
The water supply to Chinese cities is increasingly degrading from pollution due to watershed activities. Consequently, water source protection requires urgent action using optimal land-use management efforts. An inexact linear programming model for optimal land-use management of surface water source area was developed. The model was proposed to balance the economic benefits of land-use development and water source protection. The maximum net economic benefit (NEB) was chosen as the objective of land-use management. The total environmental capacity (TEC) of rivers and the minimum water supply (MWS) were considered key constraints. Other constraints included forest coverage, government requirements concerning the proportions of various land-use types, soil loss, slope lands, and technical constraints. A case study was conducted for the Songhuaba Watershed, a reservoir supplying water to Kunming City, the third largest city in southwestern China. A 15-year (2006 to 2020) optimal model for land-use management was developed to better protect this water source and to gain maximum benefits from development. Ten constraints were involved in the optimal model, and results indicated that NEB ranged between 893 and 1,459 million US$. The proposed model will allow local authorities to better understand and address complex land-use systems and to develop optimal land-use management strategies for balancing source water protection and local economic development.