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Diversity of Trichoderma spp. causing Pleurotus green mould diseases in Central Europe

Błaszczyk, Lidia, Siwulski, Marek, Sobieralski, Krzysztof, Frużyńska-Jóźwiak, Dorota
Folia microbiologica 2013 v.58 no.4 pp. 325-333
Pleurotus ostreatus, Trichoderma, alleles, exons, farms, haplotypes, internal transcribed spacers, introns, loci, multigene family, polymerase chain reaction, ribosomal RNA, screening, sequence analysis, straw, translation (genetics), Central European region, Hungary, Poland, Romania
The present study includes the molecular characteristics of Trichoderma pleurotum and Trichoderma pleuroticola isolates collected from green moulded cereal straw substrates at 47 oyster mushroom farms in Poland. The screening of the 80 Trichoderma isolates was performed by morphological observation and by using the multiplex PCR assay. This approach enabled specific detection of 47 strains of T. pleurotum and 2 strains of T. pleuroticola. Initial identifications were confirmed by sequencing the fragment of internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) of the rRNA gene cluster and the fragment including the fourth and fifth introns and the last long exon of the translation–elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene. ITS and tef1 sequence information was also used to establish the intra- and interspecies relationship of T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola originating from the oyster mushroom farms in Poland and from other countries. Comparative analysis of the ITS sequences showed that all T. pleurotum isolates from Poland represent one haplotype, identical to that of T. pleurotum strains from Hungary and Romania. Sequence analysis of the tef1 locus revealed two haplotypes (“T” and “N”) of Polish T. pleurotum isolates. The “T” type isolates of T. pleurotum were identical to those of strains from Hungary and Romania. The “N” type isolates possessed a unique tef1 allele. Detailed analysis of the ITS and tef1 sequences of two T. pleuroticola isolates showed their identicalness to Italian strain C.P.K. 1540.