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Fiber Specific Changes in Sphingolipid Metabolism in Skeletal Muscles of Hyperthyroid Rats

Chabowski, A., Żendzian-Piotrowska, M., Mikłosz, A., Łukaszuk, B., Kurek, K., Górski, J.
Lipids 2013 v.48 no.7 pp. 697-704
ceramides, glycolysis, hydrolysis, hyperthyroidism, muscles, rats, serine C-palmitoyltransferase, skeletal muscle, sphingomyelins, sphingosine, thyroid hormones
Thyroid hormones (T₃, T₄) are well known modulators of different cellular signals including the sphingomyelin pathway. However, studies regarding downstream effects of T₃ on sphingolipid metabolism in skeletal muscle are scarce. In the present work we sought to investigate the effects of hyperthyroidism on the activity of the key enzymes of ceramide metabolism as well as the content of fundamental sphingolipids. Based on fiber/metabolic differences, we chose three different skeletal muscles, with diverse fiber compositions: soleus (slow-twitch oxidative), red (fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic) and white (fast-twitch glycolytic) section of gastrocnemius. We demonstrated that T₃ induced accumulation of sphinganine, ceramide, sphingosine, as well as sphingomyelin, mostly in soleus and in red, but not white section of gastrocnemius. Concomitantly, the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase and acid/neutral ceramidase was increased in more oxidative muscles. In conclusion, hyperthyroidism induced fiber specific changes in the content of sphingolipids that were relatively more related to de novo synthesis of ceramide rather than to its generation via hydrolysis of sphingomyelin.