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Effect of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios on growth performance, body composition, nutrient utilization and hepatic enzymes activities of herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
- GAO, W., LIU, Y.-J., TIAN, L.-X., MAI, K.-S., LIANG, G.-Y., YANG, H.-J., HUAI, M.-Y., LUO, W.-J.
- Aquaculture nutrition 2010 v.16 no.3 pp. 327-333
- Ctenopharyngodon idella, alkaline phosphatase, body composition, cholesterol, crude protein, dietary carbohydrate, dietary fat, energy, enzyme activity, feed conversion, fish, glucokinase, growth performance, hepatosomatic index, herbivores, liver, protein efficiency ratio, pyruvate kinase, regression analysis, specific growth rate, triacylglycerols, weight gain
- Six isonitrogenous (390 g kg⁻¹) and isoenergetic (16.2 kJ g⁻¹) diets with varying carbohydrate : lipid (CHO : L) ratios (202.5-1.74), were fed to triplicate groups of 25 fish in indoor recirculation system. Over 8-week-growth trial, best weight gain (WG), specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein production value (P < 0.05) were observed in fish-fed diets with CHO : L ratio of 7.5. Fish fed either the lowest (1.7) or highest (202.5) CHO : L ratio tended to produce lower (P < 0.05) growth and feed conversion efficiencies. The values of viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio increased as dietary CHO : L ratios decreased. There were no significant differences in whole body and liver crude protein among dietary treatments. Whole body and liver lipid increased as CHO : L ratios decreased. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels increased linearly as dietary CHO : L ratios decreased. Activities of glucokinase and pyruvate kinase were stimulated by elevated levels of dietary carbohydrate; however, activities of lipase (LPS) and alkaline phosphatase were stimulated by elevated levels of dietary lipid. Based on a second-order polynomial regression analysis of WG against dietary carbohydrate and lipid levels, 275 g kg⁻¹ of carbohydrate and 59 g kg⁻¹ of lipid, corresponding to a CHO : L ratio of 4.7, in a diet holding 390 g kg⁻¹ of crude protein and 16.3 kJ g⁻¹ of gross energy, proved to be optimal for grass carp. These results indicated that utilization of dietary lipid and carbohydrate was moderate in grass carp, but the fish were a little more capable of utilizing lipid compared with carbohydrate.