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Determination of suspected allergens in cosmetic products by headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-fast gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry

del Nogal Sánchez, Miguel, Pérez-Pavón, José Luis, Moreno Cordero, Bernardo
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2010 v.397 no.6 pp. 2579-2591
allergens, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, citral, cosmetics, coumarin, eugenol, farnesol, gas chromatography, geraniol, headspace analysis, instrumentation, isomers, limonene, linalool, mass spectrometry, quantitative analysis, temperature, volatile compounds
In the present work, a strategy for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 24 volatile compounds listed as suspected allergens in cosmetics by the European Union is reported. The list includes benzyl alcohol, limonene, linalool, methyl 2-octynoate, β-citronellol, geraniol, citral (two isomers), 7-hydroxycitronellal, anisyl alcohol, cinnamal, cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, isoeugenol (two isomers), coumarin, α-isomethyl ionone, lilial®, α-amylcinnamal, lyral®, α-amylcinnamyl alcohol, farnesol (three isomers), α-hexyl cinnamal, benzyl cinnamate, benzyl benzoate, and benzyl salicylate. The applicability of a headspace (HS) autosampler in combination with a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) and a quadrupole mass spectrometry (qMS) detector is explored. By using a headspace sampler, sample preparation is reduced to introducing the sample into the vial. This reduces the analysis time and the experimental errors associated with this step of the analytical process. Two different injection techniques were used: solvent-vent injection and hot-split injection. The first offers a way to improve sensitivity at the same time maintaining the simple headspace instrumentation and it is recommended for compounds at trace levels. The use of a liner packed with Tenax-TA® allowed the compounds of interest to be retained during the venting process. The signals obtained when hot-split injection was used allowed quantification of all the compounds according to the thresholds of the European Cosmetics Directive. Monodimensional gas chromatography coupled to a conventional quadrupole mass spectrometry detector was used and the 24 analytes were separated appropriately along a run time of about 12 min. Use of the standard addition procedure as a quantification technique overcame the matrix effect. It should be emphasized that the method showed good precision and accuracy. Furthermore, it is rapid, simple, and—in view of the results—highly suitable for the determination of suspected allergens in different cosmetic products.