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Synergism of α-Linolenic Acid, Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Calcium in Decreasing Adipocyte and Increasing Osteoblast Cell Growth
- Kim, Youjin, Kelly, Owen J., Ilich, Jasminka Z.
- Lipids 2013 v.48 no.8 pp. 787-802
- adipocytes, adipogenesis, adipose tissue, alpha-linolenic acid, calcium, cell culture, cell growth, cell proliferation, conjugated linoleic acid, diet, eicosanoids, energy, insulin-like growth factor I, isomers, metabolism, milk fat, synergism, whole milk
- Whole fat milk and dairy products (although providing more energy compared to low- or non-fat products), are good sources of α-linolenic acid (ALA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and calcium, which may be favorable in modulating bone and adipose tissue metabolism. We examined individual and/or synergistic effects of ALA, CLA and calcium (at levels similar to those in whole milk/dairy products) in regulating bone and adipose cell growth. ST2 stromal, MC3T3-L1 adipocyte-like and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were treated with: (a) linoleic acid (LNA):ALA ratios = 1–5:1; (b) individual/combined 80–90 % c9, t11 (9,11) and 5–10 % t10, c12 (10,12) CLA isomers; (c) 0.5–3.0 mM calcium; (d) combinations of (a), (b), (c); and (e) control. Local mediators, including eicosanoids and growth factors, were measured. (a) The optimal effect was found at the 4:1 LNA:ALA ratio where insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) production was the lowest in MC3T3-L1 cells. (b) All CLA isomer blends decreased MC3T3-L1 and increased MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. (c) 1.5–2.5 mM calcium increased ST2 and MC3T3-E1, and decreased MC3T3-L1 cell proliferation. (d) Combination of 4:1 LNA:ALA + 90:10 % CLA + 2.0 mM calcium lowered MC3T3-L1 and increased MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. Overall, the optimal LNA:ALA ratio to enhance osteoblastogenesis and inhibit adipogenesis was 4:1. This effect was enhanced by 90:10 % CLA + 2.0 mM calcium, indicating possible synergism of these dietary factors in promoting osteoblast and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation in cell cultures.