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Effects of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus

Aquaculture nutrition 2010 v.16 no.2 pp. 205-212
Myxocyprinus asiaticus, body composition, condition factor, correlation, dietary fat, dietary protein, energy, feed conversion, fish, freshwater, glass fibers, hepatosomatic index, juveniles, lipid content, liver, muscles, protein efficiency ratio, protein energy ratio, tanks, water content
A growth experiment was conducted to investigate effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Myxocyprinus asiaticus (initial mean weight: 10.04 ± 0.53 g, mean ± SD). Nine practical diets were formulated to contain three protein levels (340, 390 and 440 g kg⁻¹), each with three lipid levels (60, 100 and 140 g kg⁻¹), in order to produce a range of P/E ratios (from 22.4 to 32.8 mg protein kJ⁻¹). Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 20 fish in 400-L indoors flow-through circular fibre glass tanks provided with sand-filtered aerated freshwater. The results showed that the growth was significantly affected by dietary P/E ratio (P < 0.05). Fish fed the diets with 440 g kg⁻¹ protein (100 and 140 g kg⁻¹ lipid, P/E ratio of 31.43 and 29.22 mg protein kJ⁻¹) had the highest specific growth rates (SGR) (2.16 and 2.27% day⁻¹, respectively). However, fish fed the diet with 390 g kg⁻¹ protein and 140 g kg⁻¹ lipid showed comparable growth (2.01% day⁻¹), and had higher protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein productive value (PPV) and energy retention (ER) than other groups (P < 0.05). No significant differences in survival were found among dietary treatments. Carcass lipid content was positively correlated with dietary lipid level, but irrespective of protein level and inversely correlated with carcass moisture content. Carcass protein contents increased with increasing dietary lipid at each protein level. The white muscle and liver composition showed that lipid increased with increasing dietary lipid level (P < 0.05). Dietary protein concentrations had significant effect on condition factor (CF), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI) (P < 0.05). However, dietary lipid concentrations had no significant effect on CF, HSI (P > 0.05). Based on these observations, 440 g kg⁻¹ protein with lipid from 100 to 140 g kg⁻¹ (P/E ratio of 29.22 to 31.43 mg protein kJ⁻¹) seemed to meet minimum requirement for optimal growth and feed utilization, and lipid could cause protein-sparing effect in diets for juvenile Chinese sucker.