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Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) in cattle–a review with emphasis on reproductive impacts and the emergence of infection in Ireland and the United Kingdom

Graham, David A
Irish veterinary journal 2013 v.66 no.1 pp. 50
Bovine herpesvirus 1, breeding, cattle, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pathogens, pregnancy, prioritization, reproductive disorders, virulent strains, viruses, Germany, Ireland, United Kingdom
Bovine reproductive disease attributable to bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) was first described in Germany in the 19ᵗʰ century, being recognised primarily as the cause of infectious vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis until the mid-1950s when a more virulent strain of the virus (BoHV-1.1) associated with respiratory disease (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis; IBR) emerged in the western United States. Subsequently, IBR emerged as a clinical condition in Europe, from the 1970s onward. While the ability of BoHV-1 to produce respiratory disease is now well recognised, the potential negative outcomes of infection on fertility and reproduction are less frequently considered. This review was conducted against the background of the prioritization of disease caused by BoHV-1 as one of several diseases to be addressed by Animal Health Ireland, with the twin goals of summarizing the published literature on the potential outcomes of infection at different stages of breeding and pregnancy, and of describing the emergence of BoHV-1 as a significant pathogen in Ireland and the UK.