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The Dynamics of Plate Tectonics and Mantle Flow: From Local to Global Scales
- Stadler, Georg, Gurnis, Michael, Burstedde, Carsten, Wilcox, Lucas C., Alisic, Laura, Ghattas, Omar
- Science 2010 v.329 no.5995 pp. 1033-1038
- algorithms, cold, computers, models, tectonics
- Plate tectonics is regulated by driving and resisting forces concentrated at plate boundaries, but observationally constrained high-resolution models of global mantle flow remain a computational challenge. We capitalized on advances in adaptive mesh refinement algorithms on parallel computers to simulate global mantle flow by incorporating plate motions, with individual plate margins resolved down to a scale of 1 kilometer. Back-arc extension and slab rollback are emergent consequences of slab descent in the upper mantle. Cold thermal anomalies within the lower mantle couple into oceanic plates through narrow high-viscosity slabs, altering the velocity of oceanic plates. Viscous dissipation within the bending lithosphere at trenches amounts to approximately 5 to 20% of the total dissipation through the entire lithosphere and mantle.