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Observations on phenology and overwintering of spiders associated with apple and pear orchards in south-central Washington

Miliczky, Eugene R., Horton, David R., Calkins, Carrol O.
The Journal of arachnology 2008 v.36 no.3 pp. 565
life cycle (organisms), Araneae, phenology, overwintering, life history, habitats, Malus domestica, Pyrus communis, apples, pears, orchards, Washington
Beating tray and sweep net samples from apple and pear orchards in south-central Washington State were used to obtain information on life history and phenology of orchard-associated spiders. Cardboard shelters placed in the orchards in the fall and collected during the winter yielded information on spider overwintering. Data were obtained for 43 species in 28 genera and 12 families. The eight most abundant species were Pelegrina aeneola (Curtis 1892), Meioneta fillmorana (Chamberlin 1919), Oxyopes scalaris Hentz 1845, Theridion neomexicanum Banks 1901, Misumenops lepidus (Thorell 1877), Xysticus cunctator Thorell 1877, Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer 1802), and Sassacus papenhoei Peckham & Peckham 1895. Each was represented by more than 690 specimens. Salticidae, Philodromidae, and Linyphiidae were represented by the largest number of species. Most species appear to have univoltine life cycles in the study area. Species matured at different times during the season between spring and fall. Twenty-seven species utilized cardboard shelters for overwintering, but some common spiders failed to do so and apparently use alternative locations. Some species overwintered in a broad range of developmental stages, whereas other species overwintered in only one or two instars.