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Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere
- Ait Kaki, Asma, Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine, Dehimat, Laid, Milet, Asma, Youcef-Ali, Mounia, Ongena, Marc, Thonart, Philippe
- Indian journal of microbiology 2013 v.53 no.4 pp. 447-452
- Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Botrytis cinerea, Calendula officinalis, Cladosporium, Fusarium oxysporum, Paenibacillus polymyxa, acetic acid, antifungal properties, bacteria, biological control, chickpeas, colorimetry, crops, endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, enzyme activity, genes, genetic variation, greenhouse experimentation, growth promotion, lipopeptides, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, plant growth, rhizosphere, seeds, siderophores, soil, stem rot
- The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn’t produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6–52 μg/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems.