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Light regulation on growth, development, and secondary metabolism of marine-derived filamentous fungi

Cai, Menghao, Fang, Zhe, Niu, Chuanpeng, Zhou, Xiangshan, Zhang, Yuanxing
Folia microbiologica 2013 v.58 no.6 pp. 537-546
Aspergillus glaucus, Xylaria, bioactive properties, biosynthesis, blue light, irradiation, lighting, marine environment, marine fungi, microbial growth, pharmacokinetics, phylogeny, proteins, red light, sexual development, white light
Effects of different light conditions on development, growth, and secondary metabolism of three marine-derived filamentous fungi were investigated. Darkness irritated sexual development of Aspergillus glaucus HB1-19, while white, red, and blue lights improved its asexual behavior. The red and blue lights improved asexual stroma formation of Xylaria sp. (no. 2508), but the darkness and white light inhibited it. Differently, development of Halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403) turned out to be insensitive to any tested light irradiation. Upon the experimental data, no regularity was observed linking development with secondary metabolism. However, fungal growth showed inversely correlation with productions of major bioactive compounds (aspergiolide A, 1403C, and xyloketal B) from various strains. The results indicated that aspergiolide A biosynthesis favored blue light illumination, while 1403C and xyloketal B preferred red light irradiation. With the favorite light sensing conditions, productions of aspergiolide A, 1403C, and xyloketal B were enhanced by 32.9, 21.9, and 30.8 % compared with those in the dark, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis comparing the light-responding proteins of A. glaucus HB 1-19 with those in other systems indicated that A. glaucus HB 1-19 was closely related to Aspergillus spp. especially A. nidulans in spite of its role of marine-derived fungus. It indicated that marine fungi might conserve its light response system when adapting the marine environment. This work also offers useful information for process optimization involving light regulation on growth and metabolism for drug candidate production from light-sensitive marine fungi.