Jump to Main Content
An HD-domain phosphodiesterase mediates cooperative hydrolysis of c-di-AMP to affect bacterial growth and virulence
- Huynh, TuAnh Ngoc, Luo, Shukun, Pensinger, Daniel, Sauer, John-Demian, Tong, Liang, Woodward, Joshua J.
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2015 v.112 no.7 pp. E747
- Listeria monocytogenes, animal models, bacteria, host-pathogen relationships, hydrolysis, inflammation, microbial growth, microbial physiology, mutants, pathogens, signal transduction, virulence
- The nucleotide cyclic di-3′,5′- adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) was recently identified as an essential and widespread second messenger in bacterial signaling. Among c-di-AMP–producing bacteria, altered nucleotide levels result in several physiological defects and attenuated virulence. Thus, a detailed molecular understanding of c-di-AMP metabolism is of both fundamental and practical interest. Currently, c-di-AMP degradation is recognized solely among DHH-DHHA1 domain-containing phosphodiesterases. Using chemical proteomics, we identified the Listeria monocytogenes protein PgpH as a molecular target of c-di-AMP. Biochemical and structural studies revealed that the PgpH His-Asp (HD) domain bound c-di-AMP with high affinity and specifically hydrolyzed this nucleotide to 5′-pApA. PgpH hydrolysis activity was inhibited by ppGpp, indicating a cross-talk between c-di-AMP signaling and the stringent response. Genetic analyses supported coordinated regulation of c-di-AMP levels in and out of the host. Intriguingly, a L. monocytogenes mutant that lacks c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases exhibited elevated c-di-AMP levels, hyperinduced a host type-I IFN response, and was significantly attenuated for infection. Furthermore, PgpH homologs, which belong to the 7TMR-HD family, are widespread among hundreds of c-di-AMP synthesizing microorganisms. Thus, PgpH represents a broadly conserved class of c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase with possibly other physiological functions in this crucial signaling network.