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Utilization of common ditch vegetation in the reduction of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite

Kroger, Robert, Moore, Matt T.
Pest management science 2008 v.64 no.12 pp. 1212
agricultural runoff, insecticide residues, fipronil, chemical concentration, metabolites, phytoremediation, vegetation, drainage channels, wetland plants, species differences, pollutants, pollution load, oxidation, aquatic environment, rice, cotton, crop production, temporal variation
BACKGROUND: Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, and its oxidative sulfone metabolite are two potential pollutants from treated rice and cotton production. A consequence of these pollutants occurring in surface runoff is degradation of downstream aquatic ecosystems. Utilization of primary intercept drainage ditches as management practices to reduce fipronil concentrations and loads has not been examined. This study used ditch mesocosms planted with monospecific stands of common emergent wetland vegetation to determine if certain plant species were more proficient in fipronil mitigation.RESULTS: Three replicates of four plant species were compared against a non-vegetated control to determine differences in water column outflow concentrations (μg L⁻¹) and loads (μg). There were no significant differences between vegetated and control treatments in outflow concentrations (F = 0.35, P = 0.836) and loads (F = 0.35, P = 0.836). The range of fipronil reduction was 28-45% for both concentration and load. Unlike fipronil, fipronil sulfone concentrations and load increased by 96-328%.CONCLUSION: The increase in fipronil sulfone was hypothesized as a direct consequence of oxidation of fipronil within each mesocosm. The type of ditch vegetation had no effect on fipronil reduction. Future research needs to examine initial concentrations and hydraulic retention times to examine potential changes in reduction capacities.