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Response of carrot protoplasts and protoplast-derived aggregates to selection using a fungal culture filtrate of Alternaria radicina

Ewa Grzebelus, Maria Kruk, Alicja Macko-Podgórni, Dariusz Grzebelus
Plant cell, tissue, and organ culture 2013 v.115 no.2 pp. 209-222
protoplasts, viability, Alternaria radicina, DNA, miniature inverted repeat transposable elements, tetraploidy, genotype, Angiospermae, carrots, pollen, fungi
Protoplasts isolated from three accessions of cultivated carrot and 5-day-old protoplast-derived aggregates were subjected to selection to identify somaclonal variants with enhanced tolerance to the fungal disease black rot incited by Alternaria radicina. Different concentrations [1, 2, 3.5, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 % (v/v)] of a fungal culture filtrate (FCF) from 2-week-old liquid cultures of A. radicina were used. Protoplasts and aggregates were subjected to short-term selection for a period of 10 days. All FCF concentrations added to the cultures on the day of isolation decreased protoplast survival frequency and plating efficiency, while FCF applied 5 days later inhibited cell divisions in 5–50 % concentrations. The responses of protoplasts to the treatment were genotype dependent. Most R0 plants were regenerated in all accessions from cell lines grown with 1 % FCF, while only a few plants were produced from 2 to 3.5 % FCF-treated cultures of ‘Dolanka’ and the breeding line ‘9304B’, respectively. Nineteen-percent of putative stress-tolerant regenerants were tetraploids, while only 5 % tetraploids were observed in the control. The incidence of unique random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments indicating possible chromosomal rearrangements was low and did not differ among regenerants after selection and those derived from the control. Mobilization of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements was not observed. Some R0 individuals regenerated both from FCF-treated and untreated cultures showed lower susceptibility to A. radicina in a laboratory assay in comparison to control plants grown from seed. Regenerants from FCF-treated cultures showed lower frequency of flowering plants and a higher rate of male sterility. Pollen viability of the putative stress-tolerant regenerants varied over a wide range (6–98 %), independently of in vitro selection conditions. Our data suggest that A. radicina FCF may be feasible for the in vitro selection to generate plants with superior phenotypic performance against A. radicina.