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Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) phenology according to the BBCH phenological scale

Ramírez, Fernando, Fischer, Gerhard, Davenport, Thomas Lee, Pinzón, Julio Cesar Augusto, Ulrichs, Christian
Scientia horticulturae 2013 v.162 pp. 39-42
Physalis peruviana, developmental stages, flowering, flowers, fruiting, fruits, germination, leaf development, phenology, ripening, shoots, shrubs, Andes region, Colombia
The cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) is a shrub found native in the Andes that bears tomato-like fruit, which are sold commercially and exported from Colombia. We describe the BBCH-based phenological scale for this crop that was developed by observing three cape gooseberry ecotype accessions during a two-year study. The proposed BBCH phenological scale uses seven principal growth stages out of the nine principal stages identified for solanaceous fruits. The principal growth stages are (0) germination, (1) leaf development, (2) formation of side shoots, (5) inflorescence emergence, (6) flowering, (7) development of fruit and (8) ripening of fruit and seed. Early growth stages (0–1) in cape gooseberry are similar to the developmental stages of other solanaceous plants. The first bifurcation (stage 2) marks the beginning of floral development (stage 5). Thereafter, simultaneous developmental stages occur throughout the plant's phenology. It is common to observe early flowers, fully open flowers, immature and mature fruits on the same plant. The BBCH phenological scale developed for cape gooseberry is a useful tool for management and research practices and for subsequent investigations on any of the developmental stages the plant passes through.