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Genomic suppression subtractive hybridization as a tool to identify differences in mycorrhizal fungal genomes

Murat, Claude, Zampieri, Elisa, Vallino, Marta, Daghino, Stefania, Perotto, Silvia, Bonfante, Paola
FEMS microbiology letters 2011 v.318 no.2 pp. 115-122
Tuber melanosporum, barcoding, genes, genetic markers, genetic variation, glutathione synthase, metal tolerance, monitoring, mycorrhizal fungi, phylogeny, suppression subtractive hybridization, transposons, truffles
Characterization of genomic variation among different microbial species, or different strains of the same species, is a field of significant interest with a wide range of potential applications. We have investigated the genomic variation in mycorrhizal fungal genomes through genomic suppressive subtractive hybridization. The comparison was between phylogenetically distant and close truffle species (Tuber spp.), and between isolates of the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius featuring different degrees of metal tolerance. In the interspecies experiment, almost all the sequences that were identified in the Tuber melanosporum genome and absent in Tuber borchii and Tuber indicum corresponded to transposable elements. In the intraspecies comparison, some specific sequences corresponded to regions coding for enzymes, among them a glutathione synthetase known to be involved in metal tolerance. This approach is a quick and rather inexpensive tool to develop molecular markers for mycorrhizal fungi tracking and barcoding, to identify functional genes and to investigate the genome plasticity, adaptation and evolution.