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Chlorinated Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes with High Work Function for Organic Device Compatibility
- Helander, M.G., Wang, Z.B., Qiu, J., Greiner, M.T., Puzzo, D.P., Liu, Z.W., Lu, Z.H.
- Science 2011 v.332 no.6032 pp. 944-947
- electrodes, energy, indium, indium tin oxide
- In organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), a stack of multiple organic layers facilitates charge flow from the low work function [approximately 4.7 electron volts (eV)] of the transparent electrode (tin-doped indium oxide, ITO) to the deep energy levels (approximately 6 eV) of the active light-emitting organic materials. We demonstrate a chlorinated ITO transparent electrode with a work function of >6.1 eV that provides a direct match to the energy levels of the active light-emitting materials in state-of-the art OLEDs. A highly simplified green OLED with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 54% and power efficiency of 230 lumens per watt using outcoupling enhancement was demonstrated, as were EQE of 50% and power efficiency of 110 lumens per watt at 10,000 candelas per square meter.