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Simultaneous analysis of buprenorphine, methadone, cocaine, opiates and nicotine metabolites in sweat by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
- Concheiro, Marta, Shakleya, Diaa M., Huestis, Marilyn A.
- Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2011 v.400 no.1 pp. 69-78
- acetates, acetonitrile, biomarkers, buprenorphine, cocaine, codeine, cotinine, formic acid, liquid chromatography, metabolites, methadone, monitoring, morphine, nicotine, pH, sweat, tandem mass spectrometry, tobacco, women
- A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenorphine (NBUP), methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester (EME), morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, heroin, 6-acetylcodeine, cotinine, and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine quantification in sweat was developed and comprehensively validated. Sweat patches were mixed with 6 mL acetate buffer at pH 4.5, and supernatant extracted with Strata-XC-cartridges. Reverse-phase separation was achieved with a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile in 15 min. Quantification was achieved by multiple reaction monitoring of two transitions per compound. The assay was a linear 1-1,000 ng/patch, except EME 5-1,000 ng/patch. Intra-, inter-day and total imprecision were <10.1%CV, analytical recovery 87.2-107.7%, extraction efficiency 35.3-160.9%, and process efficiency 25.5-91.7%. Ion suppression was detected for EME (−63.3%) and EDDP (−60.4%), and enhancement for NBUP (42.6%). Deuterated internal standards compensated for these effects. No carryover was detected, and all analytes were stable for 24 h at 22 °C, 72 h at 4 °C, and after three freeze/thaw cycles. The method was applied to weekly sweat patches from an opioid-dependent BUP-maintained pregnant woman; 75.0% of sweat patches were positive for BUP, 93.8% for cocaine, 37.5% for opiates, 6.3% for methadone and all for tobacco biomarkers. This method permits a fast and simultaneous quantification of 14 drugs and metabolites in sweat patches, with good selectivity and sensitivity.