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Efficacy of soil treatments of entomopathogenic nematodes against the larvae, pupae and adults of Tuta absoluta and their interaction with the insecticides used against this insect

Garcia-del-Pino, Fernando, Alabern, Xavier, Morton, Ana
BioControl 2013 v.58 no.6 pp. 723-731
Galleria, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema carpocapsae, Tuta absoluta, adults, entomopathogenic nematodes, hosts, insecticides, insects, leaves, mortality, nematode larvae, pathogenicity, pesticide application, pupae, reproduction, soil, soil treatment, sublethal effects
The efficacy of soil treatments of three native entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) against Tuta absoluta larvae, pupae and adults was determined under laboratory conditions. The effect of three insecticides commonly used against T. absoluta, in the survival, infectivity and reproduction of these nematode strains was also evaluated. When dropped into soil to pupate, soil application of nematodes resulted in a high mortality of larvae: 100, 52.3 and 96.7 % efficacy for S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora respectively. No mortality of pupae was observed and mortality of adults emerging from soil was 79.1 % for S. carpocapsae and 0.5 % for S. feltiae. The insecticides tested had a negligible effect on nematode survival, infectivity and reproduction. No sublethal effects were observed. Infective juveniles that survived to insecticide exposition were able to infect Galleria larvae with no significant differences from the control. The Galleria larvae affected by the three insecticides tested served as suitable hosts for the infection and reproduction of the nematodes. These results suggest that larvae of T. absoluta, falling from leaves following insecticide application, could be suitable hosts for nematodes, thereby increasing their concentration and persistence in the soil.