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Identification of prostate cancer mRNA markers by averaged differential expression and their detection in biopsies, blood, and urine

Bai, V. Uma, Kaseb, Ahmed, Tejwani, Sheela, Divine, George W., Barrack, Evelyn R., Menon, Mani, Pardee, Arthur B., Reddy, G. Prem-Veer
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2007 v.104 no.7 pp. 2343-2348
biomarkers, biopsy, blood serum, complementary DNA, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genetic markers, messenger RNA, patients, prostate-specific antigen, prostatic neoplasms, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, urine
The advent of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a biomarker has enabled early detection of prostate cancer and, hence, improved clinical outcome. However, a low PSA is not a guarantee of disease-free status, and an elevated PSA is frequently associated with a negative biopsy. Therefore, our goal is to identify molecular markers that can detect prostate cancer with greater specificity in body fluids such as urine or blood. We used the RT-PCR differential display method to first identify mRNA transcripts differentially expressed in tumor vs. patient-matched nontumor prostate tissue. This analysis led to the identification of 44 mRNA transcripts that were expressed differentially in some but not all tumor specimens examined. To identify mRNA transcripts that are differentially expressed in most tumor specimens, we turned to differential display of pooled tissue samples, a technique we name averaged differential expression (ADE). We performed differential display of mRNA from patient-matched nontumor vs. tumor tissue, each pooled from 10 patients with various Gleason scores. Differentially expressed mRNA transcripts identified by ADE were fewer in number, but were expressed in a greater percentage of tumors (>75%) than those identified by differential display of mRNA from individual patient samples. Differential expression of these mRNA transcripts was also detected by RT-PCR in mRNA isolated from urine and blood samples of prostate cancer patients. Our findings demonstrate the principle that specific cDNA probes of frequently differentially expressed mRNA transcripts identified by ADE can be used for the detection of prostate cancer in urine and blood samples.