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Genetic evidence for a second domestication of barley (Hordeum vulgare) east of the Fertile Crescent
- Morrell, Peter L., Clegg, Michael T.
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2007 v.104 no.9 pp. 3289-3294
- Hordeum vulgare, barley, domestication, haplotypes, gene frequency, geographical variation, phytogeography, population structure, nucleotide sequences, loci, wild relatives, genetic variation, alleles, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Turkmenistan, Pakistan
- Cereal agriculture originated with the domestication of barley and early forms of wheat in the Fertile Crescent. There has long been speculation that barley was domesticated more than once. We use differences in haplotype frequency among geographic regions at multiple loci to infer at least two domestications of barley; one within the Fertile Crescent and a second 1,500-3,000 km farther east. The Fertile Crescent domestication contributed the majority of diversity in European and American cultivars, whereas the second domestication contributed most of the diversity in barley from Central Asia to the Far East.