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Analysis of xylem formation in pine by cDNA sequencing
- Allona, I., Quinn, M., Shoop, E., Swope, K., Carlis, J., Riedl, J., Retzel, E., Campbell, M.M., Sederoff, R., Whetten, R.W.
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998 v.95 no.16 pp. 9693-9698
- messenger RNA, regulator genes, complementary DNA, structural genes, enzymes, expressed sequence tags, gene expression, cell wall components, Pinus taeda, cell differentiation, xylem, plant proteins
- Secondary xylem (wood) formation is likely to involve some genes expressed rarely or not at all in herbaceous plants. Moreover, environmental and developmental stimuli influence secondary xylem differentiation, producing morphological and chemical changes in wood. To increase our understanding of xylem formation, and to provide material for comparative analysis of gymnosperm and angiosperm sequences, ESTs were obtained from immature xylem of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). A total of 1,097 single-pass sequences were obtained from 5' ends of cDNAs made from gravistimulated tissue from bent trees. Cluster analysis detected 107 groups of similar sequences, ranging in size from 2 to 20 sequences. A total of 361 sequences fell into these groups, whereas 736 sequences were unique. About 55% of the pine EST sequences show similarity to previously described sequences in public databases. About 10% of the recognized genes encode factors involved in cell wall formation. Sequences similar to cell wall proteins, most known lignin biosynthetic enzymes, and several enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism were found. A number of putative regulatory proteins also are represented. Expression patterns of several of these genes were studied in various tissues and organs of pine. Sequencing novel genes expressed during xylem formation will provide a powerful means of identifying mechanisms controlling this important differentiation pathway.