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Inter- and intraspecific polymorphism at chloroplast SSR loci and the inheritance of plastids in Pinus radiata D. Don

Cato, S.A., Richardson, T.E.
Theoretical and applied genetics 1996 v.93 no.4 pp. 587-592
Pinaceae, Pinus radiata, Pinus thunbergii, loci, genetic markers, chloroplast DNA, genetic polymorphism, line differences, polymerase chain reaction, DNA, nucleotide sequences, cytoplasmic inheritance, repetitive sequences, genomics, microsatellite repeats, DNA primers, species differences, Magnoliophyta, Coniferophyta
DNA sequence analysis of chloroplast genomes has revealed many short nucleotide repeats analogous to nuclear microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs). We designed PCR primers flanking five of these regions identified in the chloroplast sequence from Pinus thunbergii and tested them for amplification in Pinus radiata, P. elliotii, P. taeda, P. strobus, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Cupressus macrocarpa, four New Zealand native conifer species (Podocarpus totara, Podocarpus hallii, Podocarpus nivalis, Agathis australis), and four angiosperms (Vitex lucens, Nestegis cunninghamii, Actinidia chinensis, and Arabidopsis thaliana). A PCR product in the expected size range was amplified from all species and interspecific polymorphism was detected at all five loci. Intraspecific polymorphism was detected in P. radiata with four of the five primer pairs. One of these polymorphic chloroplast SSR (cpSSR) was then used to determine the inheritance of chloroplasts in 206 progeny from four control-pollinated, full-sibling P. radiata families. Approximately 99% of the progeny had the cpSSR variant of the pollen parent indicating that in Pinus radiata, like most other conifers, chloroplasts are typically inherited from the paternal parent. These results suggest that polymorphic chloroplast SSRs will be a valuable tool for studying chloroplast diversity, cyto-nuclear disequilibrium, and plastic inheritance in a range of species, and for the analysis of gene flow via pollen and paternity in species with paternal transmission of chloroplasts.